The small and light column with the same organic structure as its parent unit is at a definite advantage in sand and swamp. and raids on communications can slow an offensive, but are rarely Mud is a related contributing factor that impairs military maneuvering in Russia and elsewhere, and is sometimes personified as "General Mud". Maybe that the argument of Milch was that 1940-41 and 1941-42 were normal winters and that the winters of the thirties were warmer than normal ? Siberia. On January 14, the Soviets captured the Pitomnik airfield, leaving Gumrak as the only serviceable airstrip available to the Sixth Army. They were in a poor state to cope with the Russian winter and now the temperature began to plummet: The Russians had a real advantage over us, because they had warm felt boots and quilted uniforms, and we had only our thin overcoats, which did not offer much protection from the cold. Losses through combat during the final days of December were severe. Rubber boots are too cold when worn alone, although they are well suited for wear over shoes. Later information that the Russians had deployed 30 infantry divisions, 33 infantry brigades, 6 armored brigades, and 3 cavalry divisions on the Moscow front left no doubt as to their intent. The enemy in the northern sector of the Klin forest was destroyed, and on 22 June Force Belov ceased to exist as a fighting force. Under the weight of three German armored divisions, the Soviet defenses began to buckle. A wool toque plus a felt or fur cap with ear flaps is best for winter. High waters can cut off bridgeheads from supplies, and for this reason both Russians and Germans repeatedly abandoned bridgeheads before spring floods. Footwear rapidly deteriorates. What would hurt the Germans more:one night with minus 40,or 5 nights with minus 20 ? At the same time, Hitler's plans for Operation Barbarossa actually miscarried before the onset of severe winter weather: neither Hitler nor the General Staff anticipated a long campaign lasting into the winter, and therefore adequate preparations, such as the distribution of warm clothing and winterization of vehicles and lubricants, were not made. White_camouflage coats or coveralls are essential for combat troops, and the Germans also found white face masks useful. Virtually every emergency landing in winter resulted in total loss of the aircraft. Finding and evacuating casualties in deep snow or close terrain is difficult, and the Germans sometimes used dogs to track down wounded or injured personnel. The division held before Klin for one day, and then completed its withdrawal across the four-lane Smolensk-Moscow highway. Successful envelopment was difficult for the Russians because such movements were usually attempted by cavalry, ski troops and infantry mounted on sleighs who were unable to take their heavy weapons with them. He who recognizes and respects this force can overcome it; he who disregards or underestimates it is threatened with failure or destruction. Long-range artillery is useless in close terrain. By noon the enemy breakthrough force was surrounded. Another formation, the IV Army Corps, had been destroyed earlier in the day. Ski boots must be large enough to permit extra socks and felt inner soles to be worn. on his belt. During local attacks communication trenches or tunnels for infantry could be dug through snow with considerable speed. The mobile task force should include both combat and supply elements, and a large percentage of its personnel should be equipped with skis to prevent the force from becoming roadbound. Maybe,but the extremes are not determining if a winter is cold or not :a winter with a lowest temperature of minus 20 can ce colder than a winter with a lowest temperature of minus 40,the same for the summer . Trenches and dugouts provide better cover in winter than in other seasons. The ground hardens, roads dry out, and the mud of spring becomes a hard crust or turns to dust. A day later, General Andrei I. Yeremenko’s forces of the Stalingrad Front opened an offensive against the Fourth Romanian Army, stationed south of Stalingrad. Parts Two, Three, and Four are concerned with European Russia south of the Arctic Circle; Part Five treats of European Russia north of the Arctic Circle.
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